All types of massage may be regarded medical massage as all of them have treating properties.
Medical massage is applied for acceleration of recovery in organs and systems of a human organism in cases of trauma and disorders.
There are two types of medical massage: medical European classical and reflectory segmental. Reflectory segmental massage is subdivided onto:
- intrinsic segmental;
- connective tissue massage;
- Su Joc therapy;
- finger Tsen (Chinese point massage);
- linear (Chinese meridian);
- Do In (Chinese in complex with physical exercises);
- Tuina (ancient Chinese);
- Shiatsu (point Japanese massage).
Medical European classical massage
According to literature, this type of massage is the most ancient technique to alleviate pain. It is applied depending on functional impairment, has different modifications, indications and contraindications. It is used in compination with physical therapy in complex treatment of internal organs diseases, the central nervous system disorders, in surgical and gynecological disorders, in ENT disorders, ophthalmology, in skin disorders and in disorders of teeth and gums. Medical massage is practiced in hospitals, ambulatories, health resorts, sanatoriums. It is included nowadays in the system of medical rehabilitation during restoration of disabilities and early return to work. Edema dissolve, exsudations in joints are eliminated, hemorrhages in tissues are removed, pain decreases, nutrition of tissues improves, function of joint and muscles improves, metabolism normalizes, bone callosity formation accelerates, connective tissue adhesions formation (leading to contractures) is prevented.
Medical (as well as hygienic) massage provides a general as well as a local effect. In general massage all the body and its major part undergo massage, in local massage – spine, head, extremities, forearms undergo massage. Maneuvres of medical and hygienic massage are identical: stroking, wringing out, grinding, limbering, vibration, i.e. the classical style is submitted.
Reflectory and segmental massage
Intrinsic segmental massage. This type of massage is based on the influence on reflectory areas of the body. Each disorder independent on location is a disorder of the whole human organism. Pathological event causes reflectory changes in those segments, innervated by the corresponding segments of the spinal cord. Those reflectory changes may develop in different tissues (skin, connective tissues, muscles, periosteum) and in body areas (Zakhariin-Ged areas).
Connective tissue massage is a massage of reflectory areas located in connective tissue. It was elaborated by E. Dicke (1929). She discovered increased tone of the connective tissue in patients with different internal organs disorders. The tone is increased between skin and subcutaneous fat, and between the latter and fascia that covers muscle , and in fascias of trunk and extremities themselves. The influence is applied by the tips of the 3rd and the 4th fingers by distraction of the connective tissue. Distraction is performed in three variants:
- skin distraction — displacement between the skin and the subcutaneous fat;
- subcutaneous distraction — displacement between the subcutaneous skin and fascia;
- fascial distraction — displacement in fascias.
Periostal massage, suggested by Vogler in Germany in 192, is also called “pressure massage” and is a point massage. The influence is made by fingertips on a bony elevations under soft tussues or where a muscle can be displaced laterally. Choosing an optimal strength of pressure, soft tissues are displaced to achieve the best contact with bone. After that a pressure of finger is increased until resistance of bone is not felt, after that round movements are performed. After that, not retrieving a finger from the skin, pressure is decreased and 2-4 seconds later pressure is increased. Thus a doctor is making a maneuver for 2-4 minutes. When pain ensues the place of massage is changed. During thoraric cave massage pressure in made during the exhalation, and during inhalation the pressure of massage is decreased. The choice of a site for massage application depends on a disorder. Periostal massage is recommended for pein relief. This type of massage improves blood supply, especially of periosteum, and influences on internal organs.
Finger Tsen massage (point Chinese massage) is a mechanical influence by fingers or devices on strictly deficite parts of a human body. Finger Tsen is a technique taken prom folk Chinese medicine — Tsen Tsu therapy, called acupuncture in many countries. The word “Tsen” in Chinese means “needle prickle”, and “Tsu” means cauterization,so, as it is seen from the name of massage, it is a method of treatment by prickle and by burn (heating) of several areas of a human body.
Acupuncture and point Chinese massage are based on the concept of active points (acupuncture points) and energetic channels - meridians. Physicians of the Ancient East stated: malicious energy integrates into the skin first of all, and via the skin into the channels, then into the internal organs, and out of there it again sends its “message” onto the skin. All that is produced via points on the human skin.
For thousands of years Chinese doctors thoroughly collected information about points on the human body irritation of which may change functional state of several organs and the whole organism. There are 670 meridian points, 171x2 extra-meridian points, 110x2 new and 170x2 auricular points.
А. К. Podshibyakin, answering a question, what is “an active point” of the skin, writes: «It is a delimited (2—10 mm wide) area of skin having a connection with a distinct internal organ or a brain area ». He emphasizes also, that active points usually coincide with the so-called maximal Zakhariin-Ged areas (areas of skin hyperesthesia in case of involvement of internal organs). Active points are located on energetic meridians (channels) along which the life energy called “Tsi” circulates, crossing sequentially all organs within a day. The concept about 14 basic channels is closely connected with the Ancient Eatern philosophy – In-Yan theory – two opposite life origins that are transforming into each other constantly, two energies of different poles. Basing on this theory doctors studied diseases and performed diagnosis and treatment.
In the Ancient Eastaern monography «Juandi-Nay-Tsin» (III—II centuries B.C..) in the first part called «Su Van» it is written: «Energy of sky is the origin of life. This energy is In and Yan, which give origin to all things and substances». In and Yan are universal cosmic polar strengths constantly transforming to each other (feminine-masculine, passive — active, cold — hot etc.). As long as In an Yan are both have their origin in the Sky, In cannot exist without Yan and vice versa.
The basic concept of In and Yan is the principle of their harmonic interrelation. Impairment of In-Yan harmony in a human organism leads to pathology. For instance, if a person is irritable, his emotional state is maintained by anger— and it is one of the signs of energy accumulation in liver. To eliminate that In must be stimulated.
In in a human organism is something concealed from us, and Yan is a body surface. Changes in Yan tell us about the state of In.
A disease according to In-Yan theory is an imbalance of natural circulation of the internal Tsi energy, its wrong redistribution. A disease may manifest by excess or deficit of energy in one or many organs. A doctor has to change the energetic state of organ. Energy deficit means In state, the organ should be given more tone (energy). Energy excess means Yan state, and such energy should be disseminated, sedated to achieve harmony. It is possible by influencing on biologically active points.
Linear massage is a point influence on meridians by fingers or devices. Linear massage is performed along the energy current via meridians. On the internal side of upper extremities (meridians of lungs, pericardium and heart) energy is directed from above to below, and on the external part (meridians of bowel and of three parts of trunk) the energy is directed from below to above. On the internal parts of lower extremities (meridians of kidneys and spleen, pancreas and liver) the energy is directed from below to above, and on the external parts (meridians of bladder, gad-bladder and liver) – from above to below.
Sedative, neutral and tone-increasing effects are used in linear massage.
Sedative (inhibitory) technique is a strong deep pressure involving subcutaneous fat and muscles. Vibration is made with frequency 150-200 oscillations per minute. A patient feels heat and mild pain. The hands of a massage specialist are directed opposite to the meridian current from the diseased area to the healthy one.
Neutral (harmonizing) technique is a moderate pressure with 100 oscillations per minute. Hyperemia and pleasant feelings are achieved. Linear movements along the meridian are intermingled with movements to the opposite direction.
Tone increasing technique are mild superficial pressure and vibration with 50 oscillations per minute, involving skin and subcutaneous fat. Mild sensation of pain is present. Movements are short and directed along the meridian from the healthy to the diseased area. Tone increasing massage is performed along the energy current in meridian, to treat “the void syndrome”, for improvement and recovery of function, and sedative massage is performed against the energy current in meridian where “the abundance syndrome” is found.
Do In is a system that includes diagnosis, self-massage and rapid cure.
Phylosophy of treatment by Do In is based on that Earth signals are perceived by all people. Those signals are colors we see, smells we feel, food we swallow, oscillations of air and soil which we feel by feet and palms. However, signals from cosmos surround us everywhere and are persieved not in the same extent by all people, because receptors for those signals do bot function in all people. However those signals in a form of waves are basis for all our opinions.
Do In makes our body and sole live in harmony with the Universe and improves body receptors.
The cosmic energy Tsi has electromagnetic origin. This energy is perceived by the human organism via acupuncture points which are located on meridians. When a human is healthy Tsi energy circulates throughout the body without obstacles. If some organ is diseased, the corresponding point becomes firm and painful and starts to pain before the organ itself. Tsi energy is always present in a human organism. However, in any time in any point in case of a disease excessive energy may be created and it leads to energy deficit in the corresponding meridian (going inside).
If energy accumulates in an acupuncture point it becomes painful after pressure or even a touch. Finger Do In massage eliminates excess of energy. If it is an excess of energy in a meridian a doctor has to transducer it to another meridian via flat part of fingers by slow, long and deep pressure with simultaneous centrifugal rotation.
When there is a deficit of energy in some point or meridian it is necessary to increase its tone or to provide energy influx. Rapid, mild and superficial pressure should be made here by fingertips (but not that of thumbs), movements should be oriented along the centripetal concentric helices. Special exercised are added to improve general circulation of Tsi energy.
Tuyna is the most ancient and the most effective type of massage used in Chinese medicine.
In China today there are many people of different ages who practice Tuyna massage, which is intended on physical and moral stoicism, prosperity and long life. The Tuyna massage was originated two thousands years ago and was gradually improved by people who preserve it as valuable heritage (U Way Sin, 1994).
Different concepts existed in the ancient Chinese philosophy, and some of them became basic for medicine, such as In-Yan and U-Sin. U-Sin concept reflects tight cyclic interaction between five initial elements: fire, wood, soil, metal and water.
The concept U-Sin includes “five initial origins” which are basic sources of information, emotions, sounds, transformations etc. Based on this concept, a classification was made, which says in what period of a year one should perform treatment of this or that disease, what taste feelings should a person follow using a diet, what emotional state should be maintained etc.
Owing to the U-Sin concept ancient Eastern doctors proved that one should approach to the concept of microcosm (a human essence) with integrity and in connection with cosmos, i.e. environment. The interaction of microcosm and macrocosm is undoubted. All food and air a person receives from environment, so a human existence depends upon how he feels environment.
Each of concepts (U -Sin and In - Yan) is a part of universal comprehension of the world. For instance, fire is Yan, water is In. In case of equal ratios of fire and water, the nature is peaceful. Increases of fire lead to forest fires, increased in water lead to floods. All that produces imbalance in the nature.
Equal ratio of In and Yan is included in the five initial origins. The chain of interactions according U-Sin is made first in Chinese medicine, then imbalance of In and Yan is found, and then influence on systems and organs is started.
All maneuvers of Tuyna massage is basen on In-Yan concept. The treatment effect depends upon the strength and longitude of influence and upon maneuvers.
Let us adduce basic maneuvers of Tuyna massage.
- Tuy maneuver — stroking. Massage technique- mild, soft or strong irritation.
- Na-Niy maneuver—pinching. Massage technique — strong pressure on a point until intensive pain ensues. Underlying muscles are involved.
- Zhu maneuver - rotation. Massage technique — mild or strong rotating movement with some pressure on a point.
- On-Tsia maneuver— interrupted pressure. Massage technique- strong irritation of points by interrupted pressure until intensive pain ensues.
- Yao maneuver — distention and rotation. Massage is performed by two hands: one hand fixes the proximal part of a joint, the other performs distention and passive movements in joints with constant increase of volume.
- Uzen maneuver — vibration. Massage technique- strong pressure on areas and points with vibration.
- Mu and Ka maneuvers — stroking and rubbing of points. Massage technique — stroking, gradually transforming into rubbing with light, soft or strong pressure.
Japanese point massage Shiatsu was invented in the XX century as a modification of traditional Japanese massage Amma. The founder of Shiatsu, Takiyuro Namikoshi writes: «Shiatsu (a therapy by finger pressure) may restore working capacity of employees who sit every day at a single place and to provide them working success. Shiatsu may prevent flues, bowel dysfunction, cerebral hemorrhages».
So, what is Shiatsu? The official definition by Japanese Ministry of Health is as follows: «Shiatsu is a treatment option in which fingers and palms are used to produce pressure on several areas of a human body in order to eradicate several dysfunctions of a human organism, to maintain and improve general state of health, to help a person to cure several disorders ».
The diapason of Shiatsu is very wide, and resembling maneuvers are applied in different situations. That is because Shiatsu does not sure diseases, it increases internal defense of the human organism. From the energetic medicine point of view Shiatsu activates energy, improves its circulation. Points of Shiatsu do not coincide with acupuncture points. Their description is not very distinct in many cases. Namikoshi himself says: “This method is based on an instinct of a human to perform a self-massage of a part of his body which hurts ».. Shiatsu is performed by rhythmic pressure on a point by a finger or several areas of palm. The basic standard maneuver – pressure by the whole surface of the first phalanx of thumb. The strength is changed from tender stroking to deep pressure. Such oscillations is made with frequency of 5-10 per minute. Sometimes massage is performed by two hands or superimposed fingers of two hands.
If a face is massaged – an index finger, the median and the 4th fingers are used. Palm is used for pressure on the stomach and in vibration maneuver. Treating several diseases the points are used close to the hurting organ. However, another points may be used, for instance, of feet when treating kidney disease and on the left hand for treating heart disease.